Characterizing Word Embeddings for Zero-Shot Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition

Moe Matsuki, Paula Lago, Sozo Inoue,
MDPI Sensors
26 pages
In this paper, we address Zero-shot learning for sensor activity recognition using word embeddings. The goal of Zero-shot learning is to estimate an unknown activity class (i.e., an activity that does not exist in a given training dataset) by learning to recognize components of activities expressed in semantic vectors. The existing zero-shot methods use mainly 2 kinds of representation as semantic vectors, attribute vector and embedding word vector. However, few zero-shot activity recognition methods based on embedding vector have been studied; especially for sensor-based activity recognition, no such studies exist, to the best of our knowledge. In this paper, we compare and thoroughly evaluate the Zero-shot method with different semantic vectors: (1) attribute vector, (2) embedding vector, and (3) expanded embedding vector and analyze their correlation to performance. Our results indicate that the performance of the three spaces is similar but the use of word embedding leads to a more efficient method, since this type of semantic vector can be generated automatically. Moreover, our suggested method achieved higher accuracy than attribute-vector methods, in cases when there exist similar information in both the given sensor data and in the semantic vector; the results of this study help select suitable classes and sensor data to build a training dataset.

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